An overview of the Malla Dynasty
The word "Malla '' refers to the Sanskrit wrestler. In Kathmandu Valley, circa 1200, the first kings of Malt came to power. Malla's reign was golden, spanning more than 600 years as the newar culture in Nepal Mandala, one of the most advanced urban cultures in the Himalayan foothills and an important destination in the Indian-Tibetan trading route, was presided over and flowered. Originally Maithil, they were known to be Maithili, which gave the Sanskrit court similar standing to that of Maithili (the language of the region of Mithila, which encompasses parts of Nepal and Bihar in India). During the Malla period, priests Maithil Brahmin and Kanyakubja Brahmin were welcomed and settled in Kathmandu. The aristocracy or the enthusiastic Malla group also came along with decades of Kshatriya-status aristocratic and ruling clans of Mithila.
Among these regular migrations was most notably the movement after Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq attacked the Mithila Kingdom during king Simha Deva's administration in 1324 CE, which led to the migration to Nepal from Mithila. During the course of this period, the priestly classes were the precursors of the present Rajopadhyaya and Maithil Brahmins in the valley, whilst today's ChatharīyaSrăNewars was founded by the immigrant guerrilla and noble groups. These individuals subsequently established endogamous caste units, which from the 16th century began to be recognized as Newar. The backbone of the army of Malla is composed of North Bihar and Uttar Pradesh troops from Tirhuti, while the military commanders and heads of the then house of Kshatriya, identified by clan titles such as Pradhan, Pradhananga, Amatya, Rawat, etc.
What is the legacy of the Malla Dynasty?
In wartime, but also the arts and culture, the competition between the three Kingdoms of the Kathmandu Valley has grown in a competitive climate akin to the one in Renaissance Italy. The excellent collections of gorgeous temples and buildings in the Durbar Square of each city bear witness to the large sums of money spent by the monarchs to overpower each other. The construction boom was financed by trade from mosquito and wool to salt, Chinese silk, and yak tails. Two different ways into Tibet, through Banepa to the northeast and by Rasuwa, the Kyirong valley near Langtang to the northwest stood in Kathmandu Valley at the launching point. Traders would enter the Terai jungle during the winter to avoid acute malaria, and then in Kathmandu, they would wait to open the mountain routes later that summer. His emperors converted their fortunes into gold pagodas and decorated Royal Palaces. Kathmandu grew wealthy. Nepal acquired the privilege to mint Tibetan silver with the help of Tibetan money in the mid-17th century.
The city's cultural height was under the supervision of Kathmandu King Pratap Malla (r. 1641-74), with the construction of the palace Hanuman Dhoka, the Rani Pokhari pond, and the first of several following pillars featuring a king's statue facing the Taleju protective temples which the Mallas had adopted as their protection divinity at that time. A high point in Patan was also seen in the mid-17th century. The reign of Malla altered the religious and aesthetic scene and introduced IndraJatra and Matsyendranath to the dramatic chariot celebration. In claiming to be the reincarnations of the Hindu God Vishnu the monarchs of Malla shared their place. They also adored Kumari, the live goddess of Taleju, who was said to be the reincarnation.
The cosmopolitan Mallas absorbed the influence of other countries as well. Influenced by Malla's attire and art, the Indian Mughal court offered firearms to the Nepalese and developed a system for land awards to military personnel which would have an important impact in subsequent years. The first description of exotic Kathmandu in the West was given by Capuchin Missionaries to Tibet during Pratap Malla in the early 18th century. The surviving ancestors abandoned the valley and moved into various parts of Nepal after the defeat of the Malla King. Their offspring used nicknames such as Raghubansi, Rajbanshi, Pradhananga.
The Period of three kingdom
It continued until the half of the 18th century, the period of the three kingdoms — the time of Mallas afterward. During this period, the distinct culture of the Kathmandu Valley flourished fully and during this time, many of their present forms were realized in the historic palace complexes in the three major cities. The Kings nevertheless founded their rightful authority on their duty as dharma protectors, and they regularly devoted themselves to religious sanctuaries. During this late Malla period, Kings erected many of the old temples, gems of late medieval art, and architecture in the valley. For much of the populace, Buddhism remained a strong force, especially in Patan's historic seat.
This support led to the preservation of the ancient art, architecture, and religious liturgy that had perished in other areas of South Asia and to the preservation of traditional worship and ritual, by permitting the passage of temples or Vihara grounds to generations of the same family. By the 14th century, Newari was regularly used as a literary language and was the predominant language of the Kathmandu Valley urban districts and business circles. During the 17th century Maithili, the language of Tirhut in the south was popular with the court and many people still spoke in Terai in the late 20th. The Khasbhasha or Khasa language expanded slowly in the west, only subsequently to today's Nepali language.
End of Malla Dynasty
The Malla Dynasty of Nepal began to decline immediately after the death of the last great monarch, YakshyaMalla. YakshyaMalla ruled over the Kathmandu Valley around the end of the 15th century, but he was unable to continue the family custom of passing the throne down to only one son. Instead, he split his empire among his three sons, ostensibly to avert war. Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Patan were the names given to the three valley kingdoms. Unfortunately, because all three of his sons struggled for control of each other's property and fortune, this decision led to strife. When King Prithvi Narayan Shah's invaded the valley, he found a valuable piece of a country torn apart by internecine warfare and a kingdom on the verge of extinction. The conquest was simple and complete, signaling the end of the Malla Dynasty. The empire was eventually dismantled and divided into several petty principalities, which were eventually merged to form the Nepalese Kingdom.